Die Middeleeuse Kruietuin


Een van die belangrikste huishoudelike pligte van 'n Middeleeuse dame was die voorsiening en oes van kruie en medisinale plante en wortels. Plante wat in die somermaande verbou is, moes geoes en vir die winter geberg word. Alhoewel graan en groente in die kasteel- of dorpsvelde verbou is, het die vrou van die huis 'n direkte rol gespeel in die groei en oes van huiskruie. Lees verder om meer te leer oor Middeleeuse kruietuine.

Middeleeuse kruietuine

Geen gerespekteerde dame sou sonder haar medikas wees nie, wat dikwels 'n reddingsboei was vir diegene wat in die winter verkoue en koors gehad het. Versuim om 'n goeie oes te verseker, kan die verskil tussen lewe en dood wees.

Kruie en plante wat in landerye en kasteeltuine verbou word, het basies in een van drie kategorieë geval: kulinêre, medisinale of huishoudelike gebruik. Sommige kruie het in verskillende kategorieë geval en sommige is gekweek vir hul ornamentele waarde. Suiwer sierplante is egter baie selde gekweek as wat dit vandag is, en baie plante wat ons as ornament beskou, het in die verlede meer praktiese gebruike gehad.

Dianthus of 'pinks' is byvoorbeeld in die Middeleeue gekweek vir kulinêre doeleindes. Pienke het 'n aartappelagtige geur en is vars gebruik om baie somergeregte te geur. Hulle was bekend vir hul sterk, aangename reuk en het geglo dat dit algemene gesondheid bevorder. Die Dianthus wat vandag gekweek word, het min reuk of smaak en word hoofsaaklik gekweek vir sy skoonheid.

Middeleeuse kruieplante

Kookplante

Kookplante en kruie is gedurende die somer gekweek en is bewaar om die winterkoste by te dra. Kruie en groente moes in hoeveelhede geoes word en gewoonlik deur droog word bewaar word om deur die lang en moeisame wintermaande te hou. Sommige kruie kon die winter in die grond weerstaan ​​en sorg vir 'n jaarlikse oorvloed. Kruie kan dikwels groei deur al die moeilikste wintertoestande, insluitend:

  • Winter sout
  • Sommige oreganos
  • Knoffel en grasuie

Ander plante moes geoes en gedroog word, waaronder:

  • Basiliekruid
  • Kerrie
  • Laventel
  • Koljander
  • Dragon
  • salie
  • Roosmaryn

Kruie is gewoonlik gedroog in bondels wat twee tot drie weke op 'n koel plek met goeie lugvloei gehang is. Gedroogde kruie kan laat hang of in flesse of krappe gebêre word, of in ongesuurde uittreksels gebruik word. Rosehip-jellie was 'n spesiale gunsteling gedurende die winter. En gekruide gelei, konfyt en wyne het die winterdiëte gevarieer.

Kruie was 'n belangrike bron van vitamiene en voedingstowwe gedurende die wintermaande wanneer daar min groen was. Mense het ook in die winter die nodige verskeidenheid voorsien van die herhaalde graan- en vleisgeregte. Daarbenewens het hulle as kamoeflering gedien vir vleis wat galsterig of sleg gekonserveer is.

Medisinale plante

Medisinale kruie is gekweek en gedroog vir gebruik gedurende die winter. Kruie kan tot 'n jaar gedroog word sonder om hul sterkte te verloor, of hulle kan poeier of by vette gevoeg word om salf en pasta te skep. Dit sluit in:

  • Selfgenees
  • Koorsblare
  • Laventel
  • salie
  • Pepermunt
  • Gansgras
  • Tansy
  • Paardebloem
  • Boneset

Wilgebas, knoffel en ander medisinale kruie en plante kan dwarsdeur die jaar geoes word. Selfgenees, koorsblare en wilgerboom is gebruik om koors te breek sowel as om koors te voorkom. Laventel, salie en peperment is as spysverteringshulpmiddels beskou. Daar word geglo dat goosgras en beendere goed is vir genesingspouses, sowel as snye en letsels. Paardebloem is beskou as 'n purgeermiddel en diuretikum. Sakkies is ook geskep en gedra om siektes af te weer en die lug te versoet. Hulle het die dubbele doel van deodorant gedurende die wintermaande gedien, toe bad byna onmoontlik was.

Huishoudelike plante

Huishoudelike kruie ingesluit:

  • Laventel
  • Roosmaryn
  • salie
  • Sitron
  • Pennyroyal
  • Pepermunt
  • Pietersielie

Sulke kruie is gebruik om die lug te versoet en plae te verlig. Laventel, sitron en roosmaryn word vandag nog gebruik om vlooie en motte af te weer.

Oes van Middeleeuse kruie

Soos u kan voorstel, was die oes van kruie en plante vir wintergebruik baie belangrik vir die kasteel, sowel as die eenvoudige dorpshut. U kan vandag u eie winterkruie eenvoudig kweek en droog. Kruie word droog wanneer dit oor twee tot drie weke gehang word. Hulle moet in 'n donker, koel ruimte wees met genoeg lugvloei.

In teenstelling met Middeleeuse matrone, het u die vermoë om u gedroogde kruie te sluit, wat hul lang lewensduur verhoog. Maak seker dat u weet wat dit is voordat u kruie gebruik. Wees versigtig om al u kruie te etiketteer voordat dit droog word. Salie en roosmaryn is miskien maklik genoeg om te identifiseer terwyl hulle groei, maar kruie lyk bedrieglik soos dit eers gedroog is.

Wees ook versigtig om nie kulinêre kruie (salie, roosmaryn, kerrie, basiliekruid) langs mekaar met huiskruie (laventel, patchouli) te droog nie. Hierdie praktyk sal u help om verwarring verder te voorkom. En soos met alle plante, moet u die gebruik daarvan versigtig en respekteer. Deur kruie en plante te kweek en te bewaar, hou u 'n tradisie voort wat strek tot in die Middeleeue en vroeër!


Die monnike het gereeld kruie, groente en blomme gekweek binne 'n hortus conclusus (‘Omheinde tuin’), binnehof of klooster van die klooster. In die Middeleeuse tuin, hoe ryk jy ook al was, was hongersnood 'n voortdurende bekommernis, sodat krammetjies soos lemboontjies, pastinaak en preie deur die here sowel as hierdie heilige manne as veldgewasse gekweek is. Inheemse kruie is uit die natuur deur 'groen' mans en vroue versamel. Aan elke plant is 'n gebruik toegeken.

Plante is in reghoekige of vierkantige beddings gekweek. Foto: Francois Berraldacci

Belangrike medisinale of skaarser plante is in reghoekige of vierkantige beddings gekweek, wat aanvanklik in 'n skaakbord uitgelê is. 'N Meer dekoratiewe patroon is geskep deur dit in 'n quincunx (soos vyf op 'n dobbelsteen) of 'n mandjie te plaas.

Eetbare plante

Vrugte- en neutbome bevat amandel, appel, kersie, vy, haselneut, medlar, moerbei, peer, pruim, kweper, sorbus en okkerneut. Wortelgroente en blare is van gemaalde beddings geproduseer, terwyl ertjies en boontjies grootgemaak is.

'N Ontspanning van 'n boeretuin rondom 'n oorspronklike Middeleeuse huis. Foto: Weald & Downland Museum

Rose is wyd verbou en medisinaal gebruik, maar ook baie verskillende dinge, van godsdienstige toewyding tot romantiese liefde. Die rooi roos kon die bloed van Christus voorstel en die martelare die Maagd Maria en die Onbevlekte Ontvangenis is met 'n wit roos vergelyk. Rooi angeliere verteenwoordig ware liefde, terwyl Viola odorata (soet violet) is 'n simbool van nederigheid.

'N Middeleeuse plot sou struikagtige kruie soos soetbaai bevat (Laurus nobilis), soet mirte (Myrtus communis), roosmaryn, salie, tiemie en wintersout. Fisiese of medisinale plante was van die grootste belang. Rue is gebruik 'om verborge gifstowwe te bestry en om die indringende magte van skadelike gif uit die ingewande te verdryf'. Venkel 'verlig 'n geswelde maag en maak trae ingewande vinnig los'.

Die maak van 'n Middeleeuse tuin

Omheinings of funksies gemaak van geweefde wilgerbome of plaaslike hazelstokke, of die gebruik van 'n stewige eikehouttraliewerk, kan 'n gevoel van die Middeleeuse verlede wek.

- Skep 'n skaakbordtuin met een plant per vierkant. Kies vir netjies immergroen plante soos roosmaryn, of golwende rose, lelies en kruie wat deur 'n lae rietheining ondersteun word.

- As u 'n gevestigde boom het, oorweeg dit om 'n grasstoeltjie daarvoor te skep, nie noodwendig van gras nie - probeer grasperkamille. As dit droog en sonnig is, koloniseer dit met kruipende tiempies. Vir 'n blommemoer kan grasgras versier word met viooltjies, primula, koeitjies, madeliefies, soetbos en maagdenkel.

'N Wilgerstoel gee 'n Middeleeuse aanslag. Foto: Francois Berraldacci

Klik hier om meer oor tuinstyle uit die geskiedenis te wete te kom.


Moet-hê kruie

Onder 'n wye verskeidenheid kruie is daar verskillende kruie wat in u tuin moet groei. Hierdie kruie is baie voordelig vir u daaglikse lewe. Kom ons kyk.

1. Basiliekruid

Om soet basiliekruid in 'n tuin te kweek, kan 'n bietjie kieskeurig wees, aangesien dit goed gedreineerde grond, baie son en warm weer benodig. As u egter basiliekruid suksesvol in u tuin kan kweek, kan u pesto gereeld by u spyskaart voeg.

2. Laventel

Daar is steeds 'n tekort aan elke siertuinontwerp as u nie laventel daarop insluit nie. Buitendien het u verskillende keuses, aangesien laventel in byna 40 spesies voorkom. Hierdie aromatiese kruie is beskikbaar op blou blare, groen blare en selfs grys blare.

Die blomme wissel in pienk, wit, pers en blou en laat u kruietuin uitstaan ​​met ekstra kleur van die laventelblomme.

3. Suurlemoenverbena

Lemon Verbena bied baie voordele. Hierdie lang en bloeiende bos lyk goed in elke kruietuin. Die blare lewer 'n aangename geur en hierdie kruie kan gebruik word as bestanddele vir stroop-cocktails en nageregte. Hulle kan ook 'n wonderlike blommerangskikking maak.

Lemon Verbena kan langsaan met suurlemoenbalsem geplant word, want albei kan in baie resepte deurmekaar gebruik word. 'N Balsem kan geurmiddels by vleis, vis en pluimvee voeg, terwyl verbena die smaak van vrugte en nageregte verhoog.

4. Pietersielie

Pietersielie is bekend as maklik groeiende kruie en is ryk aan voedingstowwe. Pietersielie verpak met vitamiene A, C en K sowel as folaat. Om nie te praat van die inhoud van phytonutrients nie. Dit word dikwels as versiering in verskillende geregte geplaas.

Pietersielieplant kan jaarliks ​​of tweejaarliks ​​wees deur na die klimaat van u leefarea te kyk.

Roosmaryn is 'n perfekte kruid om in 'n warm en droë tuin te groei. Hierdie plant het baie soorte, van die struikagtige tot die wingerdstokagtige vorm, en dit is dus geskik om by elke kruietuin gevoeg te word.

Groeiende roosmaryn van saad en mense kweek ook gereeld roosmaryn op potte en plaas dit in die area van die kombuis met genoeg sonligte. Kyk na prente vir die ontwerp van kruietuinontwerp om te sien hoe jy roosmaryn in die huis kan voeg.

6. Salie

Salie is 'n meerjarige kruid, immergroen struik wat dikwels op 'n sonnige droë plek groei. Hierdie kruie is nie net bekend vir sy kragtige genesende eienskappe nie, maar ook vir kulinêre eienskappe. Salie gee geurmiddels in enige resepte wat pluimvee bevat. Mense eet ook graag salie as kruietee.

7. Dragon

Dragon het swaardagtige blare en sy kulinêre eienskappe maak dit een van die bestanddele vir die maak van verskillende souse.

Wat kulinariese keuse betref, vervang Franse dragon Russiese dragon omdat dit met growwer blare kom en minder geur lewer. Intussen dien Russiese dragon as ornamente in enige resep of plek as grondbedekking.

Tiemies kom nie ewe veel nie. Franse tiemie word een van die algemeenste bestanddele in baie gewilde kulinêre resepte en word gewoonlik in die pot opgehef en in die kombuis gesit.

Wolagtige tiemie is ook gewild, maar dit word in die grond gekweek in plaas van in die kombuis. Kyk na planne vir die ontwerp van kruietuine oor hoe u tiemies saam met ander plante in u tuin moet plant.

Aangesien u kruie plant baie voordele in u daaglikse behoeftes bied, kan u op soek na inspirasie vir die ontwerp van kruietuine u help om te weet hoe u hierdie kruie moet verbou en watter soorte u in u kruietuin moet plant.


Carthusian monnike en 'Gardens of Eden' by Mount Grace Priory

Die tuin van die Mount Grace Priory-sel is die Engelse erfenis se bes bewaarde voorbeeld van kloostertuinbou. Dit is in 1994 vir die eerste keer geplant ná argeologiese opgrawing van die selle. Die opgrawings het getoon dat die aanleg en gebruik van elke tuin verskil volgens die neiging en belangstelling van die individuele monnik.

Die patroon van paadjies en beddings in die tuin was gebaseer op argeologiese bewyse, maar dit was onseker watter plante gebruik is of hoe dit in die beddings gerangskik is. Nie een van die onlangse aanplantings was bedoel as 'n restourasie of heropbou van die oorspronklike tuin nie. Dit was eerder 'n demonstrasie van die soorte plante wat in tuine gekweek is op die tydstip dat die klooster floreer.

Toerusting het ook verander hoe ons vandag na ons tuine omsien. Monk se gereedskap sou eenvoudige hout- en metaalbaarde gewees het (soos 'n klein ploeg met die hand) of matte eerder as die gemeganiseerde wonderwerke van die hedendaagse tuinbou. In plaas van 'n trekker, sou krag vir groter erwe deur osse voorsien word.

Seltuine soos by Mount Grace Priory het monnike die geleentheid gebied om handearbeid te doen binne die grense van hul eie sel, wat 'n belangrike deel van die Carthusiaanse ideaal was. As 'n hortus conclusus (omheinde tuin) het hulle ook Bybelse assosiasies gehad, waaronder die tuin van die 'Hooglied', en verwys na die 'oorspronklike' tuin van Eden, of na 'die paradys' self. Hierdie ruimtes was nie hoofsaaklik vir voedselproduksie nie, maar het verskeie funksies van spiritualiteit, gesondheid en nut gehad. Die massa kos vir die monnike was afkomstig van veel groter kombuistuine, erwe en plase elders.

Hierdie seltuine het 'n sterk geometriese vorm gehad, wat dikwels in kompartemente was (wat ruimtes vir medisinale of giftige spesies was) en in die 15de eeu dekoratief begin raak het. Dit het 'n mengsel van medisinale en aromatiese kruie en blomplante ingesluit om die gees en gees op te wek en om na te dink.

Salie (Salvia officinalis), wat vandag by Mount Grace Priory gekweek word - Foto Isaac Wedin via Flickr / Creative Commons

24 uur saam met 'n Carthusiaanse monnik by Mount Grace Priory

Hier breek ons ​​die tipiese dag van 'n Carthusiaanse monnik af om die belangrikheid van hul tuin in die daaglikse lewe te beklemtoon.

5:30 Die monnik word wakker van die geluid van 'n klok naby hul oor.

6:00 Die kerkklok lui as die eerste diens 'prime' gesê word, vergesel deur 'n koor in die oratorium. Dit strek met gebed tot 7:45.

7:45 Konvensionele mis word in die kerk gehou (op die terrein). Kerke in die tydperk is verlig met plante soos mullein (Verbascum thapsus) geweek in talg. Bedstrook onder die voete (Galium odoratum) is gebruik om aan te loop wanneer dit, wanneer dit gedroog word, 'n sterk geur van nuwe gesnyde hooi het.

8:30 Die monnike sou terugkeer na hul sel om handearbeid te verrig. Dit sluit in die versorging van hul tuine deur hulle plante nat te lei, teelt, oes en algemene instandhouding.

10:00 Die monnike bid en haal hul aandete uit die luik: geurmiddels van kruie sou roosmaryn (Rosmarinus officinalis), wilde tiemie (Thymus serpyllum), ware laventel of Engelse laventel (Lavandula angustifolia), salie (Salvia officinalis)vinkel (Foeniculum vulgare), en saffraankrokus (Crocus sativus). Dit is gevolg deur alleen ontspanning, wat moontlik die terugkeer na die tuin behels het.

11:30 Geestelike lees, studie en meer handearbeid in die tuine.

14:30 Vespers (gebede) word gesê.

14:45 Keer terug kerk toe om Vespers te sing.

16:00 Keer terug na die sel vir studie.

16:30 Aandete word geëet, wat dikwels eiers en slaai bevat met waarskynlik tuisgemaakte bestanddele soos radyse (Raphanus sativus), blaarslaai (Lactuca sativa ), en rampion bellflower (Campanula rapunculus). Dit word gevolg deur 'n geestelike lees en ondersoek van die gewete bekend as die 'Herinnering'.

17:45 'N Klok klink vir de Beata (musikale mis)

18:30 Die monnik tree terug bed toe en dra nog baie van sy gewoonte, want sy slaap is relatief kort.

23:30 Die monnik staan ​​op en sê Matins (die monastiese nagliturgie).

23:45 Die monnik verlaat sy sel om Matins te gaan sing, wat grotendeels deur lampe gesing word.

2:45 Keer terug na die sel om die 'dag' saam met Prime de Beata ('n gebed) af te sluit en om te slaap, sal hy oor drie uur weer opstaan.

Rekonstruksie-tekening van lekebror wat kos na 'n monniksel bring deur Ivan Lapper © Historic England Photo Library


Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea of wilde clary is Salvia verbenaca)

Clary salie (Salvia sclarea) deur H. Zell (Eie werk) CC BY-SA 3.0

'N Ander lid van die salvia-familie, Clary Sage, was ook bekend as' helder oog 'en' Oculus Christi '(Oog van Christus), aangesien dit hoofsaaklik as oogspoelmiddel gebruik is, gemaak deur soet geurige blare in water in te gooi.

Dit is 'n tweejaarlikse met persblou blomspykers van die laat lente tot die middel van die somer en lok heuningbye en ander bestuiwers.


Middeleeuse kastele, en in nog groter mate kloosters, het 'n antieke tradisie van tuinontwerp en intense tuinboutegnieke in Europa voortgesit.

Tuine was funksioneel en het kombuistuine, siekeboustuine, begraafplaasboorde, kloostergareas en wingerde ingesluit. Groente- en kruietuine het gehelp om sowel spysverteringstelsel as medisinale gewasse te voorsien, wat gebruik kon word om siekes te voed of te behandel. Tuine is in reghoekige persele aangelê, met smal paadjies tussen hulle om opbrengste te versamel. Dikwels is hierdie beddings omring met wattelheinings om te keer dat diere binnekom.

Kloosters het moontlik ook 'n 'groen hof' gehad, 'n stuk gras en bome waar perde kon wei, sowel as 'n keldertuin of privaat tuine vir gehoorsames, monnike wat spesifieke poste in die klooster beklee het.

In die kombuistuine kan venkel, kool, ui, knoffel, preie, radyse en papegaaie verbou word, asook ertjies, lensies en boontjies as daar ruimte daarvoor is.

Chirurgie-tuine kan onder andere sout, kostmary, fenegriek, roosmaryn, peperment, rue, iris, salie, bergamot, kruisement, loof, venkel en komyn bevat.

'N Kruier was 'n kruietuin en plesiertuin. A Hortus Conclusus was 'n omheinde tuin wat godsdienstige allegoriee voorstel. 'N Plesier was 'n groot ingewikkelde tuin of park. Die woord paradys kom van 'n Persion-woord vir 'n ommuurde tuin. Die term het St. Gall gebruik om na 'n oop hof in die kloostertuin te verwys, waar blomme gekweek is om die kerk te versier.

In die latere Middeleeue bied tekste, kuns en literêre werke 'n beeld van die ontwikkeling van tuinontwerp. Pietro Crescenzi, 'n prokureur uit Bolognese, het twaalf boeke geskryf oor die praktiese aspekte van boerdery in die 13de eeu en bied 'n beskrywing van middeleeuse tuinboupraktyke. Uit sy teks weet ons dat tuine met klipmure, dik heining of omheining omring is, en traliewerk en arbors bevat. Hulle het hul vorm aan die vierkantige of reghoekige vorm van die klooster geleen en vierkantige plantbeddings ingesluit.

Gras is ook die eerste keer in die Middeleeuse tuin opgemerk. In die De Vegetabilibus van Albertus Magnus wat omstreeks 1260 geskryf is, word instruksies gegee vir die plant van graspersele. Opgeboude oewers bedek met gras, genaamd 'Turf Seats', is gebou om sitplek in die tuin te bied. Vrugtebome was algemeen en geënt om nuwe vrugte te produseer. Die tuine het 'n verhoogde heuwel of 'n berg om te dien as 'n verhoog om te sien en plantbeddens is gewoonlik op verhewe platforms verhoog.

Middeleeuse en veral Renaissance tuinbou is sterk beïnvloed deur die geskrifte van die antieke Grieke en Romeine, veral Columella (oor die landbou), Varro (oor die landbou: Rerum rusticarum), Cato (oor die landbou: De re rustica), Palladius (oor die landbou), Plinius die Ouere, Dioscorides Pedanius, van Anazarbos. (De Materia Medica)

Alhoewel daar nie 'n duidelike afbakening is tussen tuine vir plesier en utilitêre tuine, boorde, ens nie, is dit duidelik dat sommige dele van sommige tuine hoofsaaklik bedoel was om 'n lus vir die sintuie te wees, en ander vir hul eindprodukte.

"In teenstelling met die plesiertuin, het die kombuis of die gebruiks-tuin voedsel en medisinale plante bevat, asook plante wat op die vloer gestrooi kan word, wat handwater maak, insekte en ander huishoudelike doele kan onderdruk."

Meestal sal elke herehuis, abdij en groot landgoed benuttende tuine, plunderige landerye en miskien bosse en selfs wingerde of boorde hê, bo en behalwe 'n soort plesiertuin.

Een van die belangrikste kenmerke van die Middeleeuse tuin was dat dit, groot of klein, altyd omring was deur paalheinings, heinings, oewers en slote, Stone, Brick, Wattle ('n soort mandjiewerk van wilgerbome, osiers, ens. Geweef. rondom die spel in die grond.)

Albertus Magnus was 'n groot bewonderaar van grasperke: "Want die gesig word op die oomblik so aangenaam verfris as deur fyn en naby gras wat kort gehou word." Die meeste skrywers beveel aan om die oorspronklike 'afvalplante' uit te grawe, die saad in die grond dood te maak deur met kookwater te oorstroom, dan die grasperk uit te lê met ingeboude tuine en goed geklop. 'N Ander skrywer beveel aan dat hulle twee keer per jaar gesny sou word met graslasse of primitiewe skêrs.

Beddens kan opgelig of gesink word:

"Beddens kan byvoorbeeld opgelig word en met borde of geweefde wilgpanele om die dreinering verbeter word, net soos Columella aanbeveel" (Hobhouse). Parkinson stel voor dat u beddings met lewende plante of dooie goed soos teëls, lood, skaapbene of planke omring.

Gesinkte beddens word hoofsaaklik in Islamitiese tuine gebruik, waar die idee is om besproeiing te vergemaklik en die aarde nie te laat uitdroog nie. Goeie voorbeelde verskyn in die Alhambra in Spanje. (Islamitiese tuine was geneig om die Romeinse patroon van vierkantige uitlegte en kanale of strome deur die tuin te volg.)

Druiwe, rose en roosmaryn is veral gekweek oor traliewerkies. Geelblare (anjers, pienke) is in hul potte gesny om te verhoed dat hulle omval. Ander soorte wingerdstokke is ook so verbou. Tralies met klimplante en traliewerkies met klimplante is as tuinmure gebruik, dikwels vanaf die agterkant van 'n grasbed of sitplek, en ook vir boë en pergola's.

Topiere kom in die laat tydperk voor, of dit self topiair is of oor 'n raam vasgemaak word, soos in hierdie verslag van Hampton Court in 1599:

"Daar was allerhande vorms, mans en vrouens, half mans en half perde, sirenes, bediende meisies met mandjies, Franse lelies en fyn kranse rondom, gemaak van droë takkies wat aanmekaar gebind was, en die voormelde immer groen, vinnig-gesette struike, of geheel en al van roosmaryn, alles getrou aan die lewe, en so slim en amusant verweef, vermeng en saam gegroei, geknip en prentjies gerangskik dat hulle gelyke moeilik sou wees om te vind. " (Sterk, bl. 33)

Bome is langs mure geplant, meetkundig in boorde geplaas (ongeveer 20 voet uitmekaar) of in stegies gepleeg. Sommige bome, soos die okkerneut, is in tuine vermy, maar vrugtebome en ander bome met 'n goeie reuk of aangename aspek is in die meeste tuine sowel as aangrensende boorde ingesluit. Soms is bome teen 'n muur opgelei, maar dit kan 'n laat tydperk wees.

Daar is twee tegnieke wat in die bosbou gebruik word, wat die moeite werd is om te noem: vleg en kweek. Albei is en word gebruik om die maksimum groei van takke en hout uit gekweekte bome te kry, sodat hulle nie veel in tuine gebruik sou word nie, behalwe moontlik in die verskansing. Kopbome, soos beuke, is op die grondvlak of 'n bietjie bo afgekap, en die stompe kon suiers uitloop. Nadat die suiers tot mediumgrootte takke gegroei het - of die regte grootte vir heinings, wattel, pale, ens - is dit geoes. Pollarding is dieselfde proses, maar word baie hoër van die grond af gedoen, buite die bereiking van takbokke vir takbokke, beeste, ens. Pollarding oorleef as 'n landskaptegniek en as gevolg van die afkap van bome vir elektriese en telefoonlyne.

Daar is bewyse in die prentjievoorstellings van plante in potte buite of in die huis. Kiewietblomme in potte blyk in daardie tydperk veral binne en buite gewild te wees. Potplante en bome word uitgebeeld bo-op grasbeddings in tuine en ingange - dit kan sagte meerjarige plante of vrugtebome wees.

Potte van keramiek lyk asof dit die norm was, gewoonlik in die beroemde 'Italiaanse' blompotstyl, of in die vorm van urne, met wye toppe of smal. Plante word ook afgebeeld wat uit wye bekers of krappe groei. Daar word getoon dat geweefde mandjies gebruik word om plante van een plek na 'n ander te vervoer.

Potplante is ook gebruik om die seisoen te verleng. Thomas Hill wys daarop dat jy jou komkommers vroeg kan begin as jy dit in potte plant, die hele dag in warm weer uitlaat en snags in 'n warm skuur skuif.

Die Gardiner wat in die begin van die lente komkommers op die regte tyd en baie soone sou besit, en al die jare, sou ou mandjies en erdepanne sonder bodem moes vol maak. , met fyn gesifte aarde wat voorheen met vet mis gehard is, en om die aarde effens te bevochtig met water, nadat die saadjies in die proefskrifte geskenk is, wat gedoen word as die warme en sonnige dae slaag, of 'n sagte reënval, die mandjies of panne met die plante, moet dan in die buiteland vertrek word, versterk en gekoester word deur die son en klein skouspelagtige vertrekke, maar die aand wat goed is, moet dit gedurende die koue seisoen onder 'n warm bedekking of huis in die grond wees, om teen die ryp te beskerm en koue lug, wat dus onder 'n dekmantel of in die warm huis staan, word saggies met water natgemaak, en dit op so 'n wyse handvatsel, totdat al die ryp, storms en koue lug verby is, soos gewoonlik nie meer met ons, tot aan die middag est van Mei.

Hierna, wanneer 'n geleentheid of 'n gepaste dag dien, moet die Tuinier die Mandjies of Pannes aan die rand of dieper op die aarde skenk, voorheen goed bewerk of afgewerk, terwyl die res van die uitbreiding uitgeoefen word, soos voorheen uitgespreek. Tuinier sal baie voorspoediger en tydiger koeie hê as enige ander.

Hierdie saak kan omring word, beide makliker, in korter tyd en met minder reis, as die eienaar dit na die sny van die afvalvertakkings in goed bewerkte beddens plaas, want dit is baie korter en vinniger, doe yeeld faire Komkommers.

Die een ding wat ek dink nodig is om te leer, vir die vermyding van die daaglikse arbeid en pyn, in die buiteland en om die huis in te neem, hetsy baddens, mandjies of erdebanne, wat op hierdie wyse deur groter fasiliteit gedoen kan word , as die tuinier dan die beste met die plante in kruiwaens of dergelike om hierdie rede, soos om Wheeles, so wonderlik gemaklik maak, doen dit in die buiteland en dra againe in die warm huis so dikwels as behoefte sal vereis.

Die jong plante kan beskerm word teen koue en luide winde, ja, ryp, die koue lug en warm Sunne, as 'n bril vir die enigste doel gemaak word, daaroor gesit word, wat op so 'n manier die beddens gegee word, op 'n manier gevorm aan Tiberius Caesar, Komkommers die hele jaar, waarin hy baie behae gehad het, net soos die waardige Columella, die geleerde Plinie het dieselfde toegewy aan die geheue, wat elke dag dieselfde verkry het soos hy skryf. "

Sagte meerjarige plante en Mediterreense bome soos lemoen, baai en granaatjie is soms gedurende die Renaissance in Noord-Europa bestuur, in die winter in bakke gebring en in 'n skuur, soms in 'n verhitte skuur gebring. Le Menagier sê om viooltjies binne-in potte vir die winter in te bring.

Nie in elke tuin nie, maar in groente- en medisinale tuine, was verhewe beddings dikwels 'n belangrike kenmerk van die plan van St. Gall af. Columella, 'n Romeinse skrywer, het voorgeskryf:

'Die grond is in beddens verdeel, wat egter so uitgedink moet word dat die hande van diegene wat dit onkruid maklik die middel van hul breedte kan bereik, sodat diegene wat agter onkruid aanloop, nie gedwing kan word om op die saailinge te trap nie. , maar kan eerder langs paaie ry en eers die een en dan die ander helfte van die bed onkruid doen. '

"Ons kan aflei dat die minimum bed- en paadebreedte onderskeidelik vier tot vyf voet en een voet sou wees. Hierdie beddings kan eenvoudig op elke lengte gepas word wat by die klein huistuin pas. sou waarskynlik gebruik word ... onderverdelings van 'n vier-en-tagtig voet-lyn kan ook gemaak word ... Een manier om 'n baars van 16 1/2 voet te onderverdeel, is om drie beddens van vier voet breed uit te lê, twee tussenbeide. paaie van 'n voet, en 'n toegangspad van twee voet tot ses tussen die een sitplek en die volgende, breed genoeg vir die kruiwaens. Die erwe kan in stroke van verskillende sitstukke wees, maar die een sitwydte is die beste vir goeie toegang vanaf die kante . "

Parkinson stel voor dat beddens met lood kan word omgesny "tot in die breedte van die vier vingers, en die onderste rand 'n bietjie na buite buig", of "oak-duim-borde vier of vyf duim breed," of skenkbene van skape, of teëls, of "ronde witterige of geblaaste klippies van 'n redelike verhouding en grootsheid. ' Hy sê, met afkeer, dat kakebene soms in die Lae Lande as rande gebruik is.

In elk geval was beddens byna universeel reghoekig en is hulle in 'n gereelde patroon gerangskik, hetsy vensterruite of dambord. Volgens Roy Strong is die manier om 'n sentrale sirkelvormige funksie met semi-reghoekige beddens met uitgesnyde hoeke uit te stel, na 1600 bekendgestel.

Sitplekke met gras was 'n belangrike kenmerk van 'tuine van plesier'. Marmer- of klipstoele verskyn ook. Een illustrasie toon 'n draagbare houtbankie.

Turfed sitplekke, ook genoem excedra, is gewoonlik gebou in die lyn van effens hoër verhewe beddens, die buitenste wals gebou met houtplanke, bakstene of wattels, hoewel sommige illustrasies ook die banke met sooi kante toon. Dikwels is turfstoele rondom die binnegrens van 'n geslote 'herber' gereël, wat sitplekke sowel as ankerplek vir die opgeplante plante bied.

Tafels verskyn ook, soos in een illustrasie van die Garden of Paradise, waar die Maagd 'n marmertafel aan haar elmboog het met 'n glas iets om te drink en 'n bietjie versnaperinge. Om buite te eet was 'n gewilde someraktiwiteit, en daar is baie illustrasies van paartjies en groepe wat eet, drink en / of speletjies speel aan tafels en bankies wat in die tuin opgestel is.

Markham's English Husbandman is baie nadruklik oor die behoefte aan 'n waterbron in 'n tuin. Die tuine in die 14-16de eeu wat ons uitbeeld, bevat gewoonlik 'n watergebied. Hulle was gewoonlik omring deur 'n grasperk, eerder as om enige soort aan te plant.

Springs was gewild en het dikwels in 'n vierkantige swembad of trog begin waarvandaan water gesuig of gewas kon word. Springkoppe en strome kan swembaddens voorsien om van te drink, om in te was of selfs vis in te hou. Al is Batseba die gewildste aanbieding van bad, maar ander illustrasies toon dat u ook in huise met slegte aansien kan bad.

Groot sierlike fonteine ​​met standbeelde het in die Renaissance gewild geword. Fonteine ​​word aangedryf deur hidroulika, water uit 'n fontein of stroom, of water word via die akwaduk binnegelei. 'N Stroom kan deur of om 'n tuin loop (soos 'n grag) of die afloop van 'n fontein of na 'n fontein kan 'n kunsmatige stroom of watertrap word. (Die Italiaanse villatuine sou 'n hele stroom aflê om afdraand deur die eiendom te loop en sy fonteine ​​te voorsien.)

Naomi Miller, in haar artikel "Medieval Garden Fountains" in Medieval Gardens, Dumbarton Oaks, 1986, beskryf die tipiese fontein voor die mode vir klassieke standbeelde wat in die 14de eeu begin:

"Gedurende die laat Middeleeue, alhoewel die fontein in die middel van 'n stadsplein, 'n kloosterklooster of 'n tuin van liefde geplaas is, het die vorm relatief onveranderd gebly. Dit is gedefinieer deur 'n sirkelvormige, veelhoekige of vierhoekige wasbak. rooted to the ground or raised upon a basin or steps. Water usually passed through a column sometimes it rose from the center of the first basin to support a second one and was dispensed by one or more spouts. A more imposing fountain would usually have secondary basins used a troughs, provisions for washing, and even fish tanks. Spouts in the form of lions' heads or grotesques decorating the column were commonplace." (p. 152).

Statuary does not appear to have been a major part of early medieval gardens, except in the cases of fountains, and in abbeys, elaborate fountain-type handwashing arrangements. In the Renaissance, interest in statuary, specifically Greek and Roman statuary, boomed. From "museum" gardens designed to display and highlight one's collection of Greek and Roman statues (or copies thereof), the idea of statues as focal points for gardens and grottos took hold.

Generally, statues were in the form of people (Greek, Roman, or Christian characters), mythical animals, or birds, horses, and occasional putti (cherubim types), medusas, or heraldic beasts on the walls seem to be typical. River gods, water nymphs, goddesses with or without fountain outlets in their bosoms, children pouring water from jars, muses, mountain giants, were all popular as statuary and fountains in the last part of the 16th century. Many major English gardens from the Elizabethan period had references to Elizabeth as Diana or Cybele, or as the Rose.

Hampton Court, one of Henry VIII of England's principal seats, was enlivened by sundials and "The Kinges bestes made to be sett vp in the privie orchard . . . vij of the Kinges Bestes. That is to say ij dragons, ij greyhounds, i lyon, i horse and i Antylope . . ." (1531 household accounts, quoted by R. Strong). This fashion of having heraldic beasts carved out of wood and set up on poles in your garden seems to have spread somewhat, as the beasts appear in other places there were also topiary beasts appearing in gardens of the period. These beasts might be painted in heraldic colors or gilded, either on appropriate parts or all over.

Eating out of doors in summer was apparently quite popular special banqueting houses were created. Some were very odd, such as the 'Mouth of Hell' cavern in an Italian Renaissance garden, and another one constructed on a platform built on the branches of an enormous linden tree. No major landowners pleasure park was complete without one.

Artificial caves cut into a hillside, or in a walled building, generally with fountains, hydraulic toys, statuary, carvings and/or paintings were the mode at the very end of period, a trend that continued into the seventeenth and 18th centuries.

Labyrinths, in which one cannot get lost, seem to have been more popular in period than Mazes. Copying the fashion in Roman tiles (and perhaps a Roman boys' exercise), big festival or game labyrinths were made of cut turf in some places by the sixteenth century, the inclusion of a labyrinth laid out with herbs and small shrubs seems to have been one way to use up space in a big garden.

"Hyssop, thyme, and cotton lavender, which were used in the early mazes, are small-- the grow, at the most, knee-high. Mazes made with these are therefore to be surveyed as well as walked in. Their color should be remembered, with box and yew also recommended: these were invaluable as evergreens. . Charles Estienne in his Agriculture et Maison Rustique recommends. . . 'and one bed of camomile to make seats and labyrinths, which they call Daedalus.' In the first English version of this work, translated by Richard Surflet in 1600. . .'these sweet herbes . . . some of them upon seats, and others in mazes made for the pleasing and recreating of the sight.'" Thacker, The History of Gardens.

Knotwork and Parterres (Embroidery-work) apparently began to be fashionable in the early 1500's, though its heyday was in the 1600's. Knots or pattern-work laid out in plants and/or colored stones, usually in blocks of four -- at first generally mirrored both horizontally and vertically, then, later, mirrored only along one axis and even only broken into 2. Markham gives instructions for laying out your knots. (Some knots included spots for the inclusion of the owner's heraldry, etc.)

In 1599, a observer's account of some partierres at Hampton Court (quoted by R. Strong, p. 33):

"By the entrance I noticed numerous patches where square cavities had been scooped out, as for paving stones some of these were filled with red brick-dust, some with white sand, and some with green lawn, very much resembling a chessboard."

Elaborate, embroidery work 'partierres" were a feature of gardens in the late 1600s and early 1700s.

Major manor gardens of the latter part of the 16th century often sited the gardens so that they could be seen from the owner's principal private quarters royalty might have two gardens, one for the king and one for the queen.

Hugh Platt, in Floraes Paradise (1608) advocated what Campbell (Charleston Kedding) calls "Sun-entrapping fruit walls, concave, niched, or alcoved . . . He suggesed lining concave walls with lead or tin plates, or pieces of glas, which would reflect the sun's heat back onto the fruit trees. He also considered warming the walls with the backs of kitchen chimneys."

Campbell also gives a good description of period references to hotbeds in Moorish agricultural manuals, in De Crescenzi, and in Thomas Hill. These hot beds were constructed by putting fresh dung in a pit and either putting soil over it and planting in the soil, covering over the plants with a shelter in inclement weather.

Peasants had mostly just a vegetable garden, perhaps with some medicinal herbs, surrounded by a wattle fence to keep the pigs, etc. out. Definitely they grew pease, beans, etc.

"The garden of the Arden peasant's holding was an important, if poorly documented, resource. Apple, cherry, plum and pear trees seem to have been common on many holdings, as in 1463 at Erdington, where nearly all peasant holdings contained orchards. The range of crops cultivated on the peasant's curtilage is poorly recorded, but the garden of Richard Sharpmore of Erdington was probably typical. In 1380 trespassing pigs ruined his vegetables, grass, beans and peas." - Andrew Watkins, "Peasants in Arden", in Richard Britnell, ed. Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages, (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998), p 94.

Monasteries would have multiple gardens: vegetable gardens, an Infirmarer's garden of medicinal herbs, cloisters or orchards for pacing and praying, and perhaps herbers also. Monasteries, hermitages and almoner's establishments sometimes had separate plots for each person to work.

Description of the grounds of the Cistercian Abbey of Clairvaux in the 12th century:

"Within the enclosure of this wall stand many and various trees, prolific in bearing fruit. It resembles a wood, and since it is near the cell of the sick brethren, it offers some comfort to their infirmities, while providing at the same time a spacious place for those who walk, and a sweet place where those who are overheated can rest. Where the orchard ends the garden begins. Here too a lovely prospect presents itself to the infirm brethren they can sit on the green edge of the great fountain, and watch the little fishes challenging one another, as it were, to war-like encounters, as they meet and play in the water."

(quoted by Paul Meyvaert, in "The Medieval Monastic Garden," Medieval Gardens, Dumbarton Oaks, 1986)

Carole Rawcliffe, in an article on Hospital Nurses and their Work, notes that hospitals and infirmaries had gardens that not only had practical function but also "contributed in less immediately obvious ways to the holistic therapy characteristic of the time." She goes on:

"During the twelfth century, the garden of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist at Castle Donington, Leicestershire, had, indeed, produced such 'powerful herbs and roots' that a local physician had gone there to seek a cure for his own tertian fever. Following a practice discernible at all levels of society, from the peasantry to the baronage, the cultivation of many hospital gardens appears to have been undertaken by women. Since it was such a large and affluent institution, the Savoy could afford to retain a gardener, who took his orders from the matron, as well as the physician and the surgeon. He grew herbs, fruits, and other plants 'for the relief and refreshment of the poor who flock to this hospital.' These were used in cooking, for the preparation of medicines and medicinal baths and for other 'health giving purposes' which probably included the production of scented candles and fumigants for dispelling the miasma of disease. . . "

"In smaller houses, such as St. Giles' Hospital, Norwich, the sisters themselves grew and processed whatever plants might be needed. Their walled garden, with its thatched pentice, was but one of several green spaces in the precinct, which included the master's ornamental garden, a great garden where trees and vegetables were cultivated, a pond yard, a piggery and a kitchen garden. During the fourteenth century surplus apples, pears, onions and leeks were sold on the open market as a cash crop other produce included saffron, garlic, hemp and henbane. . . the hospital precincts also incorporated a great meadow, with its prelapsarian 'paradyse garden'. . ."

"At the London hospital of St. Mary Bishopgate the sisters lodged in segregated quarters . . . which gave access to their own garden. Elderly corrodians, such as Joan Lunde, who lived in a 'celle sett yn the sauthe part of the [in]ffermory' of St. Giles' Hospital, Beverly, were anxious to secure such a source of 'greate yerthely comfort'. In 1500-1 she complained to the Court of Chancery that, notwithstanding the money she had spent on maintaining the garden which formed part of her corrody, it had been given to another sister. . . The fitter and more mobile residents of English almshouses, such as those at Ewleme and Arundel, were expected to weed and tidy precinct gardens, but we have little evidence of their use by convalescent patients. At the leper hospital run by St. Albans Abbey inmates were who had been phlebotomized were permitted to rest in a private garden, but many of them appear to have been Benedictines, already accustomed to the prophylactic regimen of the monastic infirmary."

-- Carole Rawcliffe, "Hospital Nurses and their Work", in Richard Britnell, ed. Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages, (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998), pp 58-61.

Castles and manors often had gardens of pleasure for walking in, with seats, private nooks screened from the wind for sitting, flowery meads for sitting and/or playing games. We see many of these in pictures of young ladies and pictures of the Virgin and Child.

Italian Renaissance gardens are characterized by lots of space, walks, statuary and 'toys'. The fashion for god and goddess statues, statues with water coming from significant points, and sculptures meant to indicate river gods, naiads, dryads, etc. was extreme they also attempted to spotlight (or create, if necessary) Etruscan ruins on the property.

From The Decameron (Bocaccio, mid-14th century):

"After this they went into a walled garden beside the mansion, which at first glance seemed to them so beautiful that they began to examine it more carefully in detail. On its outer edges and through the centre ran wide walks as straight as arrows, covered with pergolas of vines which gave every sign of bearing plenty of grapes that year. . . . The sides of these walks were almost closed in with jasmin and red and white roses, so that it was possible to walk in the garden in a perfumed and delicious shade, untouched by the sun, not only in the early morning, but when the sun was high in the sky. . . In the midst of this garden was something which they praised even more than all the rest this was a lawn of very fine grass, so green that it seemed nearly black, colored with perhaps a thousand kinds for flowers. This lawn was shut in with very green citron and orange trees bearing at the same time both ripe fruit and young fruit and flowers, so that they pleased the sense of smell as well as charmed the eyes with shade. And in the midst of this lawn was a fountain of white marble most marvellously carved. A figure standing on a column in the midst of this fountain threw water high up in the air, which fell back unto a crystal-clear basin with a delicious sound. . . the water which overflowed. . . ran out of the lawn by some hidden way where it reappeared again in cunningly made little channels which surrounded the lawn."

Parks often included multiple structures, many water features, and, at least according to Crescenzi, were stocked with wild beasts. The large gardens at Woodstock, perhaps orginally made for Henry II's light'o'love Rosamund, and suspected by at least one author to have been made imitation of those in the romance of Tristan and Iseult, are an example.

"Castles, manors and great monastic establishments would have both small herbers for useful and decorative plants and also grander enclosed areas in which walks could be shaded by trees and where there were artificial pools for fish as well as natural streams. . . Geoffrey de Montbray. . . came back to Normandy to sow acorns and grow oaks, beeches and other forest trees inside a park enclosed by a double ditch and a palisade" (Hobhouse)

The park at Hesdin, northern France, created in 1288, included:

"a menagerie, aviaries, fishponds, beautiful orchards, an enclosed garden named Le Petit Paradis, and facilities for tournaments. The guests were beckoned across a bridge by animated rope-operated monkey statutes (kitted up each year with fresh badger-fur coats) to a banqueting pavilion which was set amongst pools." (Landsberg, p. 22)

Compare this prescription from Crescenzi:

"Of the gardens of royal personages and powerful and wealthy lords. And inasmuch as wealthy persons can by their riches and power obtain such things as please them and need only science and art to create all they desire. For them, therefore, let a great meadow be chosen, arranged, and ordered, as here shall be directed. Let it be a place where the pleasant winds blow and where there are fountains of waters it should be twenty 'Journaux' or more in size according to the will of the Lord and it should be enclosed with lofty walls. Let there be in some part a wood of divers trees where the wild beasts may find a refuge. In another part let there be a costly pavilion where the king and his queen or the lord and lady may dwell, when they wish to escape from wearisome occupations and where they may solace themselves."

"Let there be shade and let the windows of the pavilion look out upon the garden but not exposed to the burning rays of the sun. Let fish-pools be made and divers fishes placed therein. Let there also be hares, rabbits, deer and such-like wild animals that are not beasts of prey. And in the trees near the pavilion let great cages be made and therein place partridges, nightingales, blackbirds, linnets, and all manner of singing birds. Let all be arranged so that the beasts and the birds may easily be seen from the pavilion. Let there also be made a pavilion with rooms and towers wholly made of trees. ”

Petrus Crescentiis, Opus Ruralium Commodorum. 1305.

Orchard trees that give fruit (apples, pears, plums) tender perennials such as bay, orange, pomegranate in the south and later in period, Olives and date palms in the south. Nut trees such as chestnut and almond. Pine and Cypress. Of non-fruiting trees, linden or lime trees were popular in northern Europe William Stephen in 1180 mentions elms, oaks, ash, and willow "along watercourses and to make shady walks" (says Hobhouse) the Roman de la Rose also mentions fir, and oriental plane trees. Crescenzi says:

"Trees are to be planted in their rows, pears, apples, and palms, and in warm places, lemons. Again mulberries, cherries, plums, and such noble trees as figs, nuts, almonds, quinces, and such-like, each according to their kinds, but spaced twenty feet apart more or less."

He also suggests box, broom, cypress, dogwood, laburnum, rosemary, eonymous or spindle and tamarisk.

Albertus Magnus recommended:

"every sweet smelling herb such as rue, and sage and basil, and likewise all sorts of flowers, as the violet, the columbine, lily, rose, iris and the like. . . sweet trees, with perfumed flowers and agreeable shade, like grapevines, pears, apples, pomegranates, sweet bay trees, cypresses and such like."

He also suggested a lawn, a bench of flowering turf, seats in the center of the garden, and a fountain.

A collected Albertus Magnus quote (John Harvey's translation):

"There are, however, some places of no great utility or fruitfulness. . . these are what are called pleasure gardens. They are in fact mainly designed for the delight of the two senses, viz. sight and smell. . .[about the lawn] may be planted every sweet smelling herb such as rue, and sage and basil, and likewise all sorts of flowers, as the violet, the columbine, lily, rose, iris and the like. So that between these herbs and the turf, at the edge of the lawn set square, let therebe a higher bench of turf flowering and lovely and somewhere in the middle provide seats so that men may sit down there to take their repose pleasurably when their senses need refreshment. Upon the lawn, too, against the heat of the sun, trees should be planted or vines trained, so that the lawn may have a delightful and cooling shade, sheltered by their leaves. For from theses trees shade is more sought after than fruit, so that not much trouble should be taken to dig about to manure them, for this might caus e great damage to the turf. Care should also be taken that the trees are not too close together or too numerous, for cutting off the breeze may do harm to health. . . the trees should not be bitter ones whose shade gives rise to diseases, such as the walnut and some others but let them be sweet trees, with perfumed flowers and agreeable shade, like grapevines, pears, apples, pomegranates, sweet bay trees, cypresses and such like."


Herb Gardening Basics

Over 15 million households in the United States grow herbs--in vegetable and perennials gardens, in containers, or on windowsills. And with good reason! In addition to their obvious role in cooking, herbs are also attractive and add color, interesting textures and forms, and rich or subtle fragrances to the home and garden.

The most popular use for herbs is in cooking, and nearly every recipe can be enhanced with the addition of appropriate herbs. Can you imagine tomato sauce without oregano? Thanksgiving stuffing without sage? Some dishes are defined by the herbs they contain--pesto without basil just isn't pesto!

Herbs have many other uses as well. Many types make wonderful teas, either as individuals or combined in blends. Chamomile makes a soothing tea for unwinding after a hard day. Bee balm (Monarda) makes a tangy tea with citrus overtones. And in addition to being tasty, mint teas aid in digestion.

Many herbs are also believed to have medicinal properties. The echinacea that has become popular as a cold remedy is extracted from the purple coneflower, a common garden perennial.

Of course many gardeners grow herbs simply because they are attractive and durable plants. Bee balm not only makes a tasty tea, it is also a reliable perennial with lovely red, pink, or white flowers. And chamomile's daisly-like blooms brighten up any sunny border.

Plant herbs where you can get to them easily for frequent harvesting, especially if you plan to use them in cooking. Consider planting a special kitchen garden near the house, so you can readily harvest herbs, greens, and other frequently-used crops. You can also grow herbs in containers or even window boxes.

Most herbs prefer full sun--at least 6 hours per day. Herbs that will tolerate some light shade include chives, cilantro, dill, and mint. Remember that if you plant perennial herbs in the vegetable garden, keep them in a separate section so you'll be sure to avoid them during spring and fall tilling.

Like all garden plants, herbs can be categorized as annual, perennial, or biennial. Annual plants grow for only one season and so must be planted each spring. Perennials live for several years. Their foliage dies back in the fall, but the roots overwinter and resume growth the following spring. And biennials grow for two years, growing foliage the first season, overwintering, then forming seeds and dying back at the end of the second season.

  • basil
  • chamomile
  • cilantro
  • cumin
  • dill
  • fennel

  • catnip
  • chives
  • lavender
  • lemon balm
  • lovage
  • marjoram
  • mint
  • oregano
  • rosemary
  • sage
  • tarragon
  • thyme

*These are not all hardy in all regions of the country. Check zone ratings.

Parsley is one of the few common herbs that is a biennial. However, unless you want to harvest the seed, you can treat it like an annual and plant new plants each season.

In general, herbs prefer a moderately rich soil. An overly rich soil (or excessive fertilizing) can lead to vigorous growth. However, many people find that the flavor of overfertilized herbs is bland, probably due to reduced essential oil content.

The soil in your herb garden should have excellent drainage. If yours doesn't, consider growing your herbs in raised beds or containers.

Caring for Herb Plants

Most herbs will thrive with about an inch of water a week, similar to other vegetable plants. Herbs in raised beds and containers will dry out more quickly than those planted directly in the garden and may need more frequent watering. Keep garden beds weeded, especially early in the season as plants are getting established.

Once established, most herb plants are remarkably resistant to insect and disease attack. The oils that give them their aroma and flavor likely evolve to repel pests. However, keep an eye out for insects such as aphids, and diseases such as powdery mildew.

Harvest herbs by cutting back a shoot to just above a leaf. This will both provide you with a harvest and encourage nice, bushy growth.

In general, an herb's flavor is most prounounced when it is harvested just before the plant begins to flower.

  • Heavily harvested herb plants can look untidy. Consider interplanting herb beds with annual flowers to camouflage the trimmed plants.
  • Herbs can help repel insects in the vegetable garden, and provide important habitat for beneficial insects.
  • Perennial mints, including spearmint, applemint, and peppermint, are very vigorous and can become invasive. Rather than planting them directly in the garden, grow the plants in containers, then sink the containers into the garden. This will contain the roots and limit spreading.
  • Perennial herbs that are not hardy in your region can be overwintered indoors, then brought back outdoors in the spring. For example, in USDA Zones 7 and colder, bring rosemary and lavender plants indoors in late fall. Maintain them in a cool, bright spot over the winter, and move them outdoors again in the spring. In USDA Zones 8 and warmer, rosemary and lavender can be left outdoors year-round.


Kyk die video: Basil, How To Grow More Than You Can Eat


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